Program kolokvií s abstrakty pro semestr Jaro 2000

29. 2. 2000
Prof. RNDr Jozef Gruska DrSC, FI MU Brno
Quantum automata
Abstract: An attempt to understand power of quantum computing, as of an important new paradigm in computing, has turned recently attention of researchers also to various quantum models of automata. The main concentration has been so far on various natural quantum versions of classical automata as of finite automata, Turing machines and cellular automata. Recognition power and succinctness of these models have been investigated. In addition, a new direction seems to be to investigate also different models of quantum automata. Results obtained so far are to the large extend based on expertise obtained during the study of classical automata, especially of probabilistic automata and reversible automata. However new methods apper also. In the talk an overview of the recent results and methods used will be presented with concentration on open problems.
7. 3. 2000
Prof. RNDr Jaroslav Kral DrSC, Praha
Beyond object orientation
Abstract: The consequences of the fact that software is a technical artifact. Wide area information system (WAIS), examples. Crucial properties of WAIS. Networks of autonomous components (NAC) as the only known feasible architecture of WAIS. Properties of autonomous components not covered by object oriented methodology. Middleware oriented systems. Autonomous components in small systems. Jak modelovat NAC? The role of XML and Internet. overview of differences between NAC and object orientation. Open problems of middleware orientation and autonomous components. Why not used until now. Threat of the new paradigm. Consequences of NAC for SW industry and software professionals.
14. 3. 2000
Prof. Ing. Ivo Serba, DrSC, Brno
Vnimani obrazu a komunikacni pocitacova grafika
Abstract: Čtení obrazu jako ąpatně definovaný problém - důsledky. Mechanismus vnímání rovinné a prostorové scény. Informační průchodnost obrazovky (okna). Grafické kódování příkazů a zpětných vazeb. Zásady správného kompozičního a barevného návrhu oken.
21. 3. 2000
Hans Hagen, PRAGMA ADE, The Netherlands
The Future of Documents and Documentation
Abstract: There will be some major changes in the way we deal with documents and documentation in the next few years. High quality on line viewing will start to replace paper. Instead of ever changing word processor formats, open formal document encoding formats will take the lead.
Characteristics of electronic documents compared to their paper ancestors will be demonstrated and discussed: we should not ignore hundreds of years of typographic tradition.
Aspects of source encoding in XML, transformations in XSL, processing using TeX and document distribution in PDF will be discussed and shown on examples.
28. 3. 2000
Prof. RNDr Petr Hajek DrSC, UIVT CAV Praha
Co je soft computing?
Abstract: Soft computing je nove paradigma pocitani zalozene na kreativnim propojeni technik jako fuzzy vypocty, neuronove a geneticke vypocty apod. charakterizovane praci s nejistotou, vagnosti, nepresnosti a suboptimalitou a na inspiraci lidskym resenim problemu. Jde o reseni problemui, pro nez je uziti klasickych matematickych metod obtizne nebo nemozne z duvodu prilisne velkosti dat nebo chybejiciho teoretickeho zazemi. V prednasce hodlam blize pohovorit o predmetu soft computing a zejmena o logickem pozadi fuzzy regulatoru, vztahu fuzzy regulatoru a neuronovych siti a moznosti jejich kombinace.
4. 4. 2000
Doc. Mojmir Kretinsky CSc
Projects on Concurrency at FI MU
Abstract: We give an overview of various research projects oriented to the area of concurrent process systems which have been running or are currently running at The Department of Computer Science, FI MU Brno. We characterise their research directions, goals and summarise some results achieved. Also we briefly report a current state and discuss some prospective research directions and targets to be met.
11. 4. 2000
Dr. Franz Wotawa, Technical University, Vienna
Model-Based Reasoning and its Application to Software Debugging
Abstract: Model-based reasoning deals with logical models of technical or physical systems for solving problems, e.g., diagnosis, configuration, and other. When compared with other approaches, e.g., rule-based expert-systems, model-based diagnosis has several advantages. First, it allows for reasoning with direct representations of a system. Changing small parts of a system usually does not result in changing the whole model. Model fragments can be reused for describing parts of other systems. Finally, using a component oriented modeling approach helps building and maintaining models of large systems. Model-based diagnosis has been successfully used in several domains, including the automotive industry for diagnosing cars, space exploration (NASA, deep space one), the ecological domain, software debugging, and other.
In the first part of my talk I will give a brief introduction in model-based diagnosis including basic definitions, algorithms, and principles of modeling. Afterwards I will introduce applications of model-based diagnosis developed at research institutes, companies, and the Vienna University of Technology. In the second part of my talk I will show how model-based diagnosis can be used for software debugging, the advantages and results of this methods and further research to be done.
18. 4. 2000
Prof. Jaroslav Nesetril DrSc, KU Praha
Idea universalnosti v matematice a informatice
Abstract: Universalni objekt je jednim ze zakladnich pojmu , ktery se vyskytuje v matematice a informatice v mnoha podobach. V prednasce uvedeme nekolik prikladu, ktere tento pojem priblizi z hlediska on-line algoritmu a strukturalni kombinatoriky.
25. 4. 2000
Dr. Peter Rossmanith, TU-Munich
Exact algorithms for NP-complete problems
Abstract: NP-hard problems have been called ``intractable'' for a long time. Meanwhile, however, there exists very efficient methods for solving many of those problems. Although their worst-case running time remains exponential, they can be used to solve real-world problems. This talk surveys some of these new and old algorithms, covering topics as algorithms for logical and graph algorithms.
27. 4. 2000
Prof. Juraj Hromkovic, University of Aachen
O vypoctovej sile Las Vegas konecnych automatov
Abstract: Jednou z centralnych tem teorii zlozitosti je studium vypoctovej sily pravdepodobnostnych algoritmov. Vzhladom na to, ze pre polynomialny cas sa nepodarilo dokazat ziadnu separaciu medzi deterministickymi , nedeterministickymi a pravdepodobnostnymi Turingovymi strojmi , je snaha skumat silu nahodou riadenych vypoctov aspon pre ohranicene vypoctove modely. V tejto prednaske sa sustredime na Las Vegas pravdepodobnostne vypocty, ktore su velmi prakticke, lebo nikdy nevedu k chybnemu vysledku. Prezentuju sa niektore vysledky popisujuce vypoctovu silu Las Vegas konecnych automatov (jednosmernych i dvojsmernych) a formuluju s problematikou suvisiace otvorene problemy.
2. 5. 2000
Doc. Vladimir Petkevic, Filozoficka fakulta, KU Praha, Karel Oliva, Universitaet Saarlands, Milena Hnatkova, FF KU PRaha, Pavel Kveton, FF UK Praha
Automaticka morfologicka disambiguace ceskych textu
Abstract: Tematem prednasky je jeden z hlavnich problemu jednoho z nejmodernejsich odvetvi matematickl/pocitacove lingvistiky: automaticke zjednoznacneni morfologicky oznackovanych textu v jazykovych korpusech, v nasem pripade korpusech cestiny. Jde o automatickl reseni morfologicke homonymie na zaklade syntaktickych pravidel: pote, co morfologicky analyzator priradi kazdemu slovnimu vyskytu v nejakem textu zahrnutem do korpusu vsechny mozne morfologicke interpretace, jiny program, tzv. tagger ci disambiguator, vybere ze vsech interpretaci tu nalezitou na zaklade kontextu, v nemz se dany slovni tvar nachazi. Prednaska ma dve hlavni casti: - kritika dosavadnich metod reseni morfologicke disambiguace prostrednictvim statistickych metod - koncepce pravidly reseni disambiguace s ukazkami nekterych pravidel a momentalni stav prac? - souvislost disambiguace s gramatickym korektorem ceskych textu a s jejich syntaktickou analyzou Prednseejici zduraznuje, ze uvedeny problem je mimoradne obtizni a ze dosud nebyl - az na zcela vzacne vyjimky - uspokojive vyresen pro zadni jazyk.
9. 5. 2000
Prof. Charles Wuetrich, University of Aachen
16. 5. 2000
Doc. Jiri Sochor CSc
Human Computer Interaction in Virtual Environment
Abstract: Interaction in 3D space should enable users to interact freely with virtual objects. Direct manipulation with virtual objects brings new problems. Forthcoming virtual environment applications require efficient techniques for faster and natural 3D interaction. We will present short review of interaction techniques, which are used in VE applications. Then we state goals of our research in 3D interaction and explain user interfaces used in applications of that type. We will mention experiments realized in our HCI laboratory.
23. 5. 2000
Doc. J. Psutka CSc, Plzen
Rozpoznavani mluvene cestiny
Abstract: Cilem prednasky bude podat strucni prehled zakladnich uloh, ktere je treba vyresit pri konstrukci systemu pro rozpoznavani souvisle mluvene cestiny. V prednasce bude diskutovana problematika zpracovani akustickeho recoveho signalu s odvozenim vhodne parametrizace. Pro ucely akustickeho modelovani bude zminena metodika zalozena na trifenovych HMM, vytvareni fonetickych rozhodovacich stromu ap. V casti zabyvajici se jazykovym modelovanlm bude diskutovana problematika vytvareni statistickych jazykovych modelu pro mluvenou cestinu. Na zlver budou uvedeny vysledky nekterych experimentu s rozpoznavanim souvisle cestiny dosazene v Centru pro vyzkum kybernetickych systemu na ZTU v Plzni.
30. 5. 2000
Mgr. Antonin Kucera Dr.
Verification of Concurrent Systems: Theory and Practice (Habilitacni prednaska)
Abstract: The problem of verification of concurrent, distributed, and non-terminating systems is a great challenge of modern computer science.
Due to high non-determinism and unpredictability of such systems, ad-hoc verification techniques (like, e.g., testing) are unusable and even dangerous. In this framework, a proper use of rigorous formal methods is inevitable and a substantial amount of work has been invested to make them as efficient as possible.
In the talk we discuss both theoretical foundations and practical applicability of two main `verification paradigms' which are the equivalence-checking and the model-checking. In the equivalence-checking approach, one formally defines the specification (i.e., the intended behavior) of a system and the actual implementation in some higher language with a well-defined semantics, and then it is shown that the two descriptions are equivalent. In the model-checking approach, the correctness requirements are expressed as a formula of certain temporal logic and then it is demonstrated that the implementation satisfies the formula. Of course, computers can support these activities, and a natural question is where are the corresponding decidability and complexity bounds. From the practical point of view, the main limiting factor is the size (i.e., the number of states) of the implementation. Even a single hardware chip can have more that 10^150 states and it is not possible to represent all of them explicitly. However, there are ways how to overcome this basic difficulty (which is also known as the `state-space explosion problem'). Existing approaches can be divided in (roughly) two groups -- abstraction techniques and techniques for a symbolic state-space representation. The idea is that one can either try to reduce the number of states by abstracting the implementation in something smaller (preserving only the `important' information), or develop a `symbolic' description language which allows for compact definitions of a large state-space using some type of regularity hidden in the structure of states. According to the current level of our knowledge, it seems that abstraction is more appropriate for verification of software (concurrent and distributed algorithms), while main industrial applications of the symbolic approach are in the area of verification of hardware (integrated circuits). We shall discuss advantages and further prospects of both methods in detail, giving some concrete examples on how the things actually work in practice.
27. 6. 2000
Prof. Jay Anderson, Lancaster, USA
Algorithm visualisation with quicktime movies: new techniques to enhance student learning
Abstract: The use of algorithm visualization and animation in the classroom to teach computer science (informatics) dates back about fifteen years, with the introduction of innovative yet simple techniques for portraying sorting algorithms among others. However, recent studies indicate that just a picture, even a moving picture, does little to help the student learn about an algorithm.
Instead, studies show, the student learns best if the animation is (1) accompanied by a textual explanation; (2) there is an opportunity for the student to stop, rewind, step backwards and forwards through the animation; (3) there is an opportunity to automatically stop the animation and ask the student a question; and (4) the student can choose inputs or parameters to the algorithm being animated.
QuickTime® Movies provide ways to accomplish the first three goals. Movies can be embedded on web pages, streamed from a server, or delivered on fixed media such as CD-ROMs. QuickTime movies can be developed on either Windows or Macintosh platforms, and shown on either platform. The talk will include examples from the author's experience at Franklin & Marshall College, Masaryk University, and TU Wien over the period 1994-2000.