Program kolokvií s abstrakty pro semestr Podzim 2000

3. 10. 2000
Mgr. Michal Kozubek, Dr., FI MU Brno
Automated acquisition and analysis of biomedical images using computer-driven optical microscopy
Abstract: Recently, we have described a high-resolution cytometry (HRCM) technique (Cytometry 36:279-293) which enables measuring of large number of cells and obtaining statistically significant data for the investigation of human genome in an automated way.
The HRCM system consists of a fully motorized fluorescence microscope and a cooled digital CCD camera fully controlled by a high-performance computer which performs both acquisition and related on-line image analysis. It is capable of analyzing microscope slides with cell nuclei in 2-D as well as in 3-D. Using HRCM, it is possible to analyze multi-color preparations including UV-excited dyes as well as repeatedly stained preparations re-acquiring individual cells.
Very recently we have built a second HRCM instrument which enables switching between conventional and confocal modes. The confocal mode is realized using a 5% Nipkow disk optimized for fluorescence imaging. It offers a better resolution but at a lower speed. The user can choose which fluorochromes are imaged in confocal mode. Thus, the system can be configured for a variety of imaging modes ranging from quick 2-D analysis up to high-resolution confocal 3-D studies.
Both instruments are controlled using our own software. The software has been optimized for speed and reliability. Special algorithms have been developed for the correct segmentation of cell nuclei as well as genes or chromosome domains. Computers are also being used for the correction of aberrations present in optical microscopy and for the determination of optimal imaging conditions. A special effort is being made to develop suitable network architecture for biomedical image processing using the facilities of Supercomputing center of Masaryk University.
Both hardware and software aspects will be discussed as well as the future goals of this very interdisciplinary research.
10. 10. 2000
Prof. Ing. Vaclav Skala, CSc., Zapadoceska universita, Plzen
Slozitost algoritmu a vizualizace dat v paralelnim prostredi
Abstract: Pocitacova grafika a visualizace dat se vyznacuje nejen slozitosti vlastnich algoritmu, ale predevsim objemem zpracovavanych dat a pozadavkem na interaktivitu. Proto je nutne krome "klasickeho" pristupu zvazit moznosti predzpracovani, distribuovaneho a paralelniho zpracovani.
Zpracovani volumetrickych dat (CT, MRI , PET data) je pripadem, kdy vypocetni narocnost roste nelinearne s rozlisenim vstupnych dat. Vyber iso-ploch je castou ulohou vedouci vsak k velkymu objemu geometrickych dat, pricemz je vyzadovana vysoka interaktivita. V ramci prednasky budou predlozeny vysledky zejmena z oblasti presnosti generovani iso-ploch, redukce povrchovych siti s pouzitim paralelnich prostredku na platforme Windows NT.
17. 10. 2000
Prof. Eva Hajicova, DrSc., MFF UK Praha
"Horka" temata komputacni lingvistiky (letosni svetova zasedani ocima prazskeho lingvisty)
Abstract: V prednasce budou shrnuty a posouzeny poznatky ziskane na dvou svetovych konferencich komputacni lingvistiky v letosnim roce (COLING v Saarbrueckenu a vyrocni mezinarodni konference Association for Computational Linguistics v Hong Kongu) a naznaceny smery, ktere se zdaji byt pro nejblizsi obdobi vyvoje teto discipliny nejaktualnejsi a nejperspektivnejsi, a to jak v oblasti teoretickeho vyzkumu, tak v oblasti jeho aplikaci.
24. 10. 2000
Prof. RNDr. Jiri Zlatuska, CSc., MU Brno
Informacni technologie a hospodarsky rust
31. 10. 2000
Stefan Schwoon, TU Munich
Verification problems for pushdown systems
Abstract: Pushdown systems are a class of infinite-state systems within the hierarchy of Process Rewrite Systems introduced by Mayr and Esparza. They can be seen as pushdown automata used not as language acceptors but as transition systems. The interest in this class stems from the fact that they can be seen as as model of sequential programs with recursive procedures. In particular, efficient algorithms have been developed for them in the field of dataflow analysis and for model- checking linear time logics. In this talk, I will present results for the latter and some examples. Most of the material is based on a paper published at CAV 2000 except for some recent extensions.
7. 11. 2000
Doc. Miloslav Dusek, CSc., Palackeho universita, Olomouc
Quantum cryptography
Abstract: Quantum cryptography is a new method for secure communication. While the vast majority of classical cryptosystems currently used rely on the one-way complexity of certain mathematical operations, security of quantum cryptography is guarantied by the fundamental laws of quantum physics. The main point is that for the transmission of a cryptographic key non-orthogonal states of quantum particles are used. Quantum cryptography may expediently be realized by means of quantum optics. Then the "alphabet" is represented by quantum states of photons and optical fiber serves as transmission channels.
14. 11. 2000
Doc. Ludek Matyska, CSc., FI MU Brno
GRID -- vyzva pro Computer Science
Abstract: Distribuovane prostredi pocitacovych siti a zvlaste Internetu na strane jedne a rostouci vypocetni narocnost skutecne realistickych vypocetnich experimentu na strane druhe vedly ke vzniku GRIDu - technik, metod a prostredi pro rozsahle distribuovane vypocty. Vytvoreni plnohodnotneho GRIDu soucasne predstavuje jednu z nejvetsich odbornych vyzev, ktere kdy pred informatikou staly. Je treba nalezt odpovedi na celou radu fundamentalnich teoretickych otazek, zvladnout programovani "ve velkem" a soucasne zajistit vysokou miru bezpecnosti vytvareneho prostredi.
Prednaska bude venovana vybranym problemum z oblasti, jimz se skupina MetaCentra venuje:
- mereni a analyza vlastnosti GRIDu
- planovani zdroju a vazba na pozadavky aplikace
- bezpecnost GRIDu

V prednasce bude rovnez kratce predstaven v soucasne dobe nejvetsi evropsky projekt v teto oblasti - DATAGRID a rovnez budou v ni prezentovany zkusenosti z rozsahleho experimentu, ktereho se skupina MetaCentra zucastnila.
21. 11. 2000
Prof. Jaroslav Pokorny, CSc., KU Praha
Jazyk XML a database
Abstract: S moznostmi vystavovani informacich zdroju se v nove podobe objevil problem, jak integrovat heterogenni data. Vedle strukturovanych dat z relacich databazi jsou k dispozici uplne texty, obrazky, webove stranky, apod. Pomoci jazyka XML lze z techto nestrukturovanych dat ziskat data semistrukturovana, nesouci informaci o svem typu bud v sobe (pomoci znacek) a/nebo pomoci regularnich vyrazu ve zvlastnim popisu, ktery pripomina databazove schema. Stejnym zpusobem lze popsat i strukturovana data data z databazi. Pomoci stromu, ci obecnejsich grafu, ale i napr. mnozinou funkci, se vyjadri odpovidajici datovy model. Cilem prednasky je ukazat jednak modely XML dat, jednak dotazovaci jazyky, ktere umoznuji formulovat dotazy nad databazi XML dat. Prezentovany budou take vysledky vlastniho vyzkumu - funkcionalni model XML dat a moznosti vyuziti typovaneho lamda kalkulu pro dotazovani.
28. 11. 2000
Prof. Paolo Ciaccia, University of Bologna, Italy
Indexing metric spaces with M-tree: basic principles and recent advances
Abstract: Metric trees represent a major recent achievement of database indexing technology in the management of similarity (range and k-nearest neighbors) queries. What makes metric trees different from multi-dimensional (or "spatial") indexes is that they work on arbitrary metric (rather than vector) spaces, which is particularly relevant for querying multimedia repositories and for supporting data mining activities. The first part of the seminar will illustrate the basic principles of the M-tree, which indeed represents the state-of-the-art metric index nowadays. The second part will discuss some recent issues related to similarity query processing,including the use of user-defined and approximate distance functions and the management of complex queries on multiple metric spaces.
5. 12. 2000
Doc. Ivan Kopecek, CSc., FI MU Brno
Computers and Playing Poker (Dialogue Automata)
Abstract: The model of the dialogue based on dialogue automata relates internal states of the participant of a dialogue with the attributes of dialogue utterances by means of transition and output functions. Consequently, this model relates emotions (that are described by attributes of the internal states) with prosody (which is described by attributes of the dialogue utterances) and other quantities that are entering the model. This approach can be used for predicting the behaviour of the user as well as determining unknown attribute value in the context of dialogue and brings some new interesting theoretical points of view and problems.
12. 12. 2000
Prof. Hynek Hermansky, Oregon Institute of Technology, USA
Current Methods for Acoustic Analysis of Speech
Abstract: The basic principles of automatic recognition of speech will be reminded. The concept of short-term analysis and Spectrograms is introduced together with the linear model of speech production. Reasons for spectral envelope estimation in ASR as well as basic techniques for its estimation such as homomorphic analysis and linear predictive analysis will be presented. Cepstrum as an approximation to Karhunen-Loeve transformation and cepstral lifters as means for modifying properties of simple Euclidean cepstral distances are also introduced here.
The concept and basic properties of a modulation spectrum of speech is explained and its historical use in predicting intelligibility of speech in auditoria is mentioned.
RASTA filtering is introduced as an extension of FIR filtering done in dynamic feature estimation and reasons for its robustness to changes in communication environments explained.
The need for data-driven feature extraction is discussed and techniques for design of discriminant spectral basis (as alternatives to the conventional cepstral analysis) and of discriminant RASTA filters are described with recent results of their applications in automatic recognition of speech and in speaker recognition.
Finally, recently introduced speech recognition from temporal patterns of spectral energies is described, and its inherent advantages in recognition of speech in adverse environments discussed.
19. 12. 2000
Dr. Erszebet Csuhaj-Varju, Computer and Automation Research Institute, HAS, Budapest
On networks of Watson-Crick DOL systems
Abstract: Networks of Watson-Crick $D0L$ systems are distributed systems of language determining devices motivated by Watson-Crick complementarity, a fundamental concept of DNA computing.
In this talk we discuss the behaviour of particular variants of these networks using different protocols for communication and we describe the growth of the number of strings at the nodes under functioning. We present results on the computational capacity of these language generating devices and on the status of some important decidability problems like the existence of a so-called blackhole in the network.