Deep Ecology's Basic Principles
Arne Naess and George Sessions, April 1984
Death Valley, California
- 1. The well-being and flourishing of human and non-human life on Earth have a value in themselves. These values are independant of the usefulness of the non-human world for human purposes.
- 2. The richness an diversity of life forms contribute to the realization of these values and are also vaues in themselves.
- 3. Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs.
- 4. The flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease of the human population. The flourishing of nonhuman life requires such a decrease.
- 5. Present human interference with the nonhuman world is excessive and the situation is rapidly worsening.
- 6. Policies must therefore be changed. These policies affect basic economic, technological, and ideological structures, the resulting state of affairs will be deeply different from the present.
- 7. The ideological change is mainly that of appreciating life quality (dwelling in situations of inherent value) rather than adhereing to an increasing higher standard of living. There will be a profound difference between big and great.
- 8. Those who subscribe to the foregoing points have and obligation directly or indirectly to try to implement the necessary changes.
Think Like A Mountain